现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

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现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

 

文/杜曦云

 

从在德国的展示开始,安东尼·蒙塔达斯(Antoni Muntadas)的《亚洲礼仪》近年来进入到亚洲,以韩国、日本、中国这三个东亚国家作为研究的对象。在首尔、东京调研和展示后,这次在北京做最后的调研和展示。


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

主办:三影堂摄影艺术中心

艺术家:安东尼·蒙塔达斯

策展人:思朋(Esteban Andueza)、杜曦云

展期:2018年8月18日 – 9月16日

地点:北京市朝阳区草场地155A


《亚洲礼仪》中有大量的访谈、对话、纪录片、语词罗列、文献搜集等,用这些这些手段和结果来定义身份的话,蒙塔达斯的身份可以是导演、分析员、研究员、人类学家、社会学家……“当代艺术”在概念上是无限开放的,这时,如果依然纠结于《亚洲礼仪》是不是艺术、乃至蒙塔达斯是不是艺术家,这种纠结是很古典的:《亚洲礼仪》中大量的图表、文档、纪录片等,可能让它看上去更像一个综合型文化调研项目,那又怎么样?何况,在《转译:药丸》、《海外》等装置中,对现成材料的转化和对视觉美学的重视,还是能满足进入“美术馆”这样的白盒子空间中的观者们对“艺术”的期待心理。

 

你最关心的是什么?,2017 (视频截图)        

你最关心的是什么?,2017 (视频截图)                    

What are your concerns? (2017)


这是2017年3月至8月期间由中国的摄制团队进行的一系列街头采访。在城市的不同的
街区不同年龄段的人们被问及同样的一个问题:“你关心的是什么?”并被要求作出
迅速和简短的回答。

(影像 18min 彩色 有声)

From March 2017 to August 2017 a series of streets interviews was carried on by a Chinese crew. Different areas and neighbourhoods of the city and people of diverse generations are 
addressed the question What are your concerns, asking for a fast and short response.
(Video. 18min, color, sound.) 


《亚洲礼仪》中,观众的参与能让这个综合项目/艺术作品更加完整,如果它催化了观者们的自我认知,它的文化效应就能进一步发酵下去。蒙塔达斯作为来自西方的“他者”,对中、日、韩的个体们展开调研并表达出了他个人的认知。观众也同样在面对他者,要在观看的过程中对溶解在“礼仪”中的各种规则进行解码,对这些规则和原本自由的肉身间的关系有所觉悟,做出个人化的判断。当然,这种开放的互动,也是当代艺术的常规方法。

蒙塔达斯自1970年代(即“录像艺术”的兴起阶段)起,成为观念艺术领域的重要人物。在他多年来不断推出的综合项目/艺术作品中,有些特点是一路贯穿至今的:从个体自由这一立场出发,带着强烈的批判意识来感受和思考生活处境。这是欧洲深厚的人文精神在他身上的发散。在当下和不远的未来,生物科技和人工智能等带来的生物和信息革命,正在破坏自由主义的人格基石和政治基础,从这个角度来看,蒙塔达斯很正统、很古典。


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

板书:重新定义亚洲礼仪,2014-2018                        

Blackboard Dialog: Redefining Asian Protocols, (2014-2018)


"板书:重新定义亚洲礼仪“是仅在中国特定展出的装置,由中国政科方面的专家学者合作完成。主要由中国研究者们完成一份包含30个问题的问卷,旨在发掘关于各个话题间的一致与分歧。答题者们需通过对比归纳中日韩三国从而完成问题的答案。分别来自三国的书法家们再将答案用各自国家的文字写在黑板上。

Blackboard Dialog: Redefining Asian Protocols is an on site specific installation produced in each site with the collaboration of local specialists in political science.  30 questions will be transformed into questionnaires to find commonalities and differences on each topic. The local researcher will answer those questions by comparing and analyzing three countries: Korea, Japan, China. Then calligraphers from the three countries will write the answers in Chinese, Japanese and Korean, directly on the blackboard.


廓清《亚洲礼仪》的这些前提、背景后,回到问题本身,更符合蒙塔达斯的本意,也更符合观者们对《亚洲礼仪》的期待:人在各种活动中都会体现出特定的礼仪和规则,作为西方白人的蒙塔达斯,想通过《亚洲礼仪》这一项目,对东亚三国(中、日、韩)进而对亚洲更深入的了解,来刷新自己以往的认知,也促使中、日、韩这三个国家的人们相互重新认识。


文明不同于物种,它没有“本质”,人类的行为定义了各自的文明。蒙塔达斯对礼仪(protocol)的解释清晰的显露他的意图:“私人和公共礼仪对社会和我们的生活进行了组织和定义。它们生产出来一系列的规则,对我们的私人和公共行为产生持续性影响。宗教仪式、传统、规则——在各种各样的程序中的礼仪,他们以这样或那样的方式试图去使用、定义、控制或者行使权力。”


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

《亚洲礼仪》:图说                                                  

Asian Protocols: Cartographies


“图说”是在韩国、日本、中国分别进行的图片调研,调研主题包括了外交,政治,秩序,会议,体育,以及宗教等 43 个关键词。 在所有收集的图片中,每个图解板块选用了其中四至五张图片。在这个过程中,英文的关键词被分别翻译成韩文,日文,和中文, 然后用蓝红黄三色区分。正如艺术家所言: “报告的关键词和图片收集的目标不在于给出 一个客观数据; 相反,这是艺术家干预下的结果,这是艺术家通过对比 400 张图片和设计放置排列而所作出的作品。

Asian Protocols: Cartographies is about image-research on Korea (The Republic of Korea), Japan, and China (The People's Republic of China) with 43 key words such as diplomacy, politics, order, meeting, sports, or religion among others. Among the images researched, 4-5 images are selected and juxtaposed on each diagram. English keywords are translated into Korean, Japanese, and Chinese. Then, those words are indexed with blue, red and yellow colours. As stated by the artist, 'Protocol keywords and image mapping' does not aim to give objective data. Instead, it is the artist's interpretation and translation of three countries' protocols with over 400 images through comparison and juxtaposition.


对电视、影像等电子媒体的敏感和持久关注,自然驱动着蒙塔达斯全球性的文化视野。随着目光从欧美扩展至全球,他越来越趋向于全局审视,这个过程也是视角越来越多元的过程。他首先承认自己并不了解亚洲,是以局外人的视角发起《亚洲礼仪》的。他采用的方式是:长期搜集和梳理文献、进入现场实地调查、与当地研究人员合作、广泛邀请社会各界人士参与讨论等。通过这些具体的方式,他推进这个项目的准确度和丰富度。当局者迷、旁观者清,在蒙塔达斯设定的程序中,参与者们在开放的讨论中时而共享旁观者的视角,对仪式中的规则、编码发起研究,反思它们以何种方式组织和约束自身的生活。这种具体、微小的行为中,不断的让人觉察生命和文化的关系、激发着变革的冲动,尤其是把自己对自己的认知,和西方人、东亚别国的人对自己的认知进行频繁对比时。


School Textbooks, (2016),现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角教科书,2016                                                                      

School Textbooks, (2016)


研究中用了非常有趣的方法来表现三国不同教育体制,艺术家收集了用作了解邻国
历史的历史教科书。

An approach to the educational systems of the three countries by collecting the history books that students use to learn the history of neighbouring countries.


《亚洲礼仪》特别重视不同个体间的自由对话。通过设定程序和具体的执行,蒙塔达斯和参与者们形成着开放的交流平台,面对由蒙塔达斯抛出或参与者们碰撞出的一个个话题,各种各样的“翻译”和解读共生,基于对不同个体们的尊重,这个综合项目的结果呈现出对“复杂性”、“生长性”的尊重。逐渐的,蒙塔达斯把彼此间的实地对话和他个人的阶段性看法组合起来,把文字和图像、现成品和审美转化也融合起来。


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

转译:药丸,2006-2018         

转译:药丸,2006-2018                                                  

On Translation: Pilles (2006-2018)


自 2006 年,蒙塔达斯就开始构思一系列的药丸,来对应每个礼仪的关键词。构思的成果如今变成了 43 瓶满满的药罐头,每瓶上写有四种语言标注的关键词。

Since 2006, Muntadas has "conceived" a series of pills to "adapt" to each keyword protocol. The result produced is 43 bottles with pills labelled in 4 languages, one for each keyword.


蒙塔达斯之前的生活和工作就是流动性的,在不同语言和体制间频繁穿梭,但主要是在欧洲和北美。《亚洲礼仪》是这位一往无前的艺术家新的突破,他开始清晰而专注的努力突破西方人对亚洲的成见,以求更接近真相:在这几个东亚国家,来自传统和当代的各种礼仪,在文化、政治、教育、社会、公共与私人空间、经济、宗教等方面对个体的模塑,以及对国与国之间关系的影响。对这个项目的本地参与者们来说,通过《亚洲礼仪》也可以更加了解自己的生活处境。

 

杜曦云和蒙塔达斯 2018,现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

杜曦云和蒙塔达斯 2018

Du Xiyun and Muntadas  2018


在有本地研究人员和社会各界人士参与的对话中,涉及44个主要的议题:性别平等、社会地位、宗教信仰、家庭暴力、饮食习惯、娱乐方式、医疗条件、治安状况、文化殖民、领土争议……围绕这些议题所展开的开放讨论,是丰富而深入的。在《亚洲礼仪》的纪录片、装置等组成部分中,也可以看到观念被审美转化后所触及的深度。细致观看时会发现:在传统丰厚、历史悠久的中、日、韩,有着在漫长历史演化中积淀的大量独特和复杂性,但又时时体现着很容易彼此间产生共鸣的普适人性。这种丰富的层次在普适层面的共通,在经济全球化三十年以来的东亚诸国尤其明显。而且,相对于现代性逻辑线性发展的欧美诸国,在经济全球一体化、信息互联网化的当代,东亚的变化要多元和剧烈的多。难以定义和加速裂变的可能性,在每个人身上都在发生着,而且愈演愈烈、不可逆转……这些突破乃至颠覆西方对亚洲成见的文化碎片,是蒙塔达斯和本土参与者们共同进入东亚现场后的所得,充满了耐人寻味之处,这是《亚洲礼仪》这个综合项目的精彩所在。

                        2018年7月27日于台北

备注:本文所有图片由三影堂摄影艺术中心提供,版权归艺术家所有。




Organizer: Three Shadows Photography Art Cent

Organizer: Three Shadows Photography Art Centre

Artist: Antoni Muntadas

Curator: Esteban Andueza & Du Xiyun

Duration: August 18 – September 16, 2018 (10:00-18:00 Closed on Mondays)

Location: Three Shadows Photography Art Centre (155A Caochangdi, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100015)


Enter Stage East : the Antennae of “Asian Protocols” 

Du Xiyun

Since its first exhibition dealing with the concept of “Protocols” in Germany, Antoni Muntadas’ work “Asian Protocols” has arrived in the Far East, the main object of the research. After being displayed in Seoul and Tokyo, two of the cities studied in the work, “Asian Protocols” is finally being exhibited in the last city explored: Beijing. 


“Asian Protocols” is made up of a large number of interviews, dialogues, documentaries, word lists, bibliographies, etc. If we were to use these materials to define the identity of the person who made them possible, Muntadas would be at once director, analyst, researcher, anthropologist, sociologist... Indeed, “Contemporary Art” is conceptually infinite and open. Is “Asian Protocols” art? And is Muntadas even an artist? The large number of charts, documents and documentaries in “Asian Protocols” may make it appear more like a comprehensive cultural research project. However, in On translation: Pille, Abroad, and other devices, the transformation of ready-made materials and the emphasis on visual aesthetics certainly meets the viewers’ expectation of “art” in a white box space such as an “art museum”. 


你最关心的是什么?,2017 (视频截图)        

What are your concerns? (2017)


From March 2017 to August 2017 a series of streets interviews was carried on by a Chinese crew. Different areas and neighbourhoods of the city and people of diverse generations are 
addressed the question What are your concerns, asking for a fast and short response.
(Video. 18min, color, sound.) 


The participation of the audience in “Asian Protocols” makes this comprehensive project/artwork all the more complete. If it catalyzes the viewer’s self- recognition, its cultural effect could be exponential. As a Western “outsider”, Muntadas conducted research on individuals in China, Japan and Korea and then expressed his personal thought process. In the process of watching, the audience must decode the various rules interwoven throughout the “protocol” in order to realize the relationship between these rules and the sovereign body that had to follow them, and then make a personal judgment. Of course, this open interaction is also the usual method employed in contemporary art. Muntadas has become an important figure in the field of conceptual art since the 1970s, the era in which “video art” began to flourish. Certain characteristics can be discerned in all of the comprehensive projects/art works that he has produced throughout his career. From the standpoint of individual freedom, his work conveys a strongly critical sense that encourages thinking and reflecting upon one’s life situation. This is the effect of Europe’s deep humanistic spirit on him. In the present and not so distant future, according to “Asian Protocols”, biological and computing revolutions brought about by biotechnology and artificial intelligence will destroy the cornerstone of human personalities and the political foundation of liberalism. From this perspective, Muntadas is very orthodox and classical. 


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

板书:重新定义亚洲礼仪,2014-2018                        

Blackboard Dialog: Redefining Asian Protocols, (2014-2018)


"板书:重新定义亚洲礼仪“是仅在中国特定展出的装置,由中国政科方面的专家学者合作完成。主要由中国研究者们完成一份包含30个问题的问卷,旨在发掘关于各个话题间的一致与分歧。答题者们需通过对比归纳中日韩三国从而完成问题的答案。分别来自三国的书法家们再将答案用各自国家的文字写在黑板上。

Blackboard Dialog: Redefining Asian Protocols is an on site specific installation produced in each site with the collaboration of local specialists in political science.  30 questions will be transformed into questionnaires to find commonalities and differences on each topic. The local researcher will answer those questions by comparing and analysing three countries: Korea, Japan, China. Then calligraphers from the three countries will write the answers in Chinese, Japanese and Korean, directly on the blackboard.


Having clarified the premise and background of “Asian Protocols”, let’s return to the main issue at hand, in line with the original intention of Muntadas, as well as the viewer’s expectation of “Asian Protocols”: when performing any kind of activity, we tend to reflect on specific rituals and rules. Muntadas, as a Western Caucasian, wants to understand Asia more deeply by studying these three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea) through the “Asian Protocols” project, to refresh his original thought process, and also to prompt people from China, Japan and South Korea to see each other in a new light. Unlike species, civilization has no “essence”, and human behavior defines each civilization. Muntadas’ interpretation of the protocol clearly reveals his intention: “Private and public protocols organize and define society and our lives. They generate a set of regulations that exercise a sustained influence over our private and public behavior. Protocols – rituals, conventions, rules – cover a variety of procedures and, in one way or another, they attempt to use, define, control or exercise power.” 


Sensitive, sustained attention to electronic media such as television and video naturally drives Muntadas’ cultural vision of the world. As his vision expands from Europe and the United States to the rest of the world, he increasingly tends to look at the whole picture, which simultaneously increases the diversity of perspectives. He admits that he didn’t understand Asia initially, and so he launched “Asian Protocols” from the perspective of an outsider. His methods were as follows: collect and sort literature over a long period of time; conduct field investigations; cooperate with local researchers; and invite people from all walks of life to participate in discussions. It was through these particular methods that he managed to attain the level of accuracy and richness found in the project. Observers see more than just players. In the process that Muntadas establishes, exhibition visitors share the perspective of the participants in the open discussions. Muntadas’ research examined the rules and codes existing in rituals, and reflects upon how they organize and constrain the lives of their subjects. This modest, concrete action allows viewers to perceive the relationship between life and culture in myriad ways and to stimulate the impulse to change, especially when they can repeatedly compare their own understanding of themselves with that of Western countries and other countries in East Asia. 


现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角

《亚洲礼仪》:图说                                                  

Asian Protocols: Cartographies


“图说”是在韩国、日本、中国分别进行的图片调研,调研主题包括了外交,政治,秩序,会议,体育,以及宗教等 43 个关键词。 在所有收集的图片中,每个图解板块选用了其中四至五张图片。在这个过程中,英文的关键词被分别翻译成韩文,日文,和中文, 然后用蓝红黄三色区分。正如艺术家所言: “报告的关键词和图片收集的目标不在于给出 一个客观数据; 相反,这是艺术家干预下的结果,这是艺术家通过对比 400 张图片和设计放置排列而所作出的作品。

Asian Protocols: Cartographies is about image-research on Korea (The Republic of Korea), Japan, and China (The People's Republic of China) with 43 key words such as diplomacy, politics, order, meeting, sports, or religion among others. Among the images researched, 4-5 images are selected and juxtaposed on each diagram. English keywords are translated into Korean, Japanese, and Chinese. Then, those words are indexed with blue, red and yellow colours. As stated by the artist, 'Protocol keywords and image mapping' does not aim to give objective data. Instead, it is the artist's interpretation and translation of three countries' protocols with over 400 images through comparison and juxtaposition.


“Asian Protocols” pays special attention to free dialogue between different individuals. Through the setup process and the careful implementation of the project, Muntadas and the project participants formed a platform for open communication that dealt with topics put forward by Muntadas or by the participants themselves; in this scenario, a variety of “translations” and interpretations coexist. Based on respect for different individuals, the results of this comprehensive project reveal a high esteem for “complexity” and “growth”. Eventually, Muntadas interspersed the field dialogues with his personal views, and aesthetically transformed text, images, and ready-made products. 


Muntadas’ life and work have both been fluid, shuttling frequently between different languages and institutions, although mainly within Europe and North America. “Asian Protocols” is a breakthrough for this ever-changing artist. He began this clear, focused effort to break through Western stereotypes about Asia in order to get closer to the truth. His entry point into these East Asian countries was traditional and contemporary rituals, and the way in which they mold individuals in culture, politics, education, society, public and private space, economy, religion, etc., as well as the impact these processes have on the relationship that exists between these countries. On a personal level, “Asian Protocols” also offered local participants the opportunity to learn more about their lives. 


School Textbooks, (2016),现场的层次:《亚洲礼仪》的触角教科书,2016                                                                      

School Textbooks, (2016)


研究中用了非常有趣的方法来表现三国不同教育体制,艺术家收集了用作了解邻国
历史的历史教科书。

An approach to the educational systems of the three countries by collecting the history books that students use to learn the history of neighbouring countries.


There were 43 main topics in the dialogue involving local researchers and people from all walks of life, under the following broad themes: gender equality, social status, religious beliefs, domestic violence, eating habits, entertainment, medical conditions, public security status, cultural colonization, and territorial disputes with others. These topics generated rich, in-depth discussions. In the documentary, installation, and other components of “Asian Protocols”, the spectator can also appreciate the depth of these concepts after their aesthetic transformation. A detailed observation reveals a great deal of uniqueness and complexity to be found in each of the long, vibrant histories of China, Japan and Korea. However, it also reflects a universal humanity that clearly resonates between each of them. This type of cultural wealth is common at a universal level, especially in East Asian countries over the last 30 years of economic globalization. Moreover, compared with European countries and the United States that have developed linearly, along modern lines, the changes that have taken place in East Asia are much more diverse and intense in the contemporary era of economic globalization and media information. There is a sense of undefined possibilities – and of a ubiquitous atomization – that are intensifying and irreversible... These breakthroughs, and even the cultural fragmentation that subverts Western stereotypes about Asia, are the fruits of Muntadas’ exploration of the East Asian scene, and his experiences with local participants. With fruits like these, “Asian Protocols” is full of food for thought. 

                           Taipei, July 27th, 2018 


杜曦云和蒙塔达斯 2018

Du Xiyun and Muntadas  2018

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